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Research Paper by Dr. HOward W. Fisher

 

Why Aortic Pulse Wave velocity Is An Excellent Diagnostic Indicator

Dr. Howard W. Fisher

Anti-Aging Medicine Researcher

 

Whether you realize it or not, disease is 90-95% is dependent upon your environment.[1] Science has now reached the point where indicators have been developed that will lead us to the point of deciding upon protocols, primarily nutritional based with some moderate activity levels maintained that can allow us to optimize a disease free longer life. There is a science to wellness.

Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are still the number one cause of death and most people do not realize that there is an early warning system available.[2]  In most cases, nutritional protocols may be instituted to change the risk factors and the onset of these disorders as well. If we are aware of the status of large artery damage by an early evaluation in the general context of CV risk factors, we will be able to take advantage of the situation.

Several methods have been proposed to analyze the structure and function of large arteries.[3]  One of the most non-invasive methods of evaluating arteries, pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurement, is used as an index of large artery elasticity and stiffness.[4] This method is easy to use, accurate, and reproducible, and thus can easily be applied for the evaluation of CV risk and to evaluate the status of central arteries. Further, algorithms have been devised to convert these values into an internal age designation because at a given age, aortic PWV is the best predictor of cardiovascular mortality.[5]

The  IHeart System records your pulse waves and utilizes the iHeart app to analyze the data to calculate Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity (AoPWV). This is how quickly the pulse wave, sent out by each heart beat, travels down your aorta to the bottom of your abdomen and back again. The stiffer the aorta, the faster the wave. Your calculated AoPWV is then compared to known values of different ages and populations to determine your Internal Age. This technology used by  IHeart system is the new gold standard for determining pulse wave velocity and has created the opportunity for everyone to be aware of their CV status.. Quantitative information on the large arteries may be easily obtained by determination of PWV. This method enables one to evaluate indirectly arterial distensibility and stiffness.[6][7]

As the heart pumps blood into the arteries (aorta), the contraction of left ventricle ejects blood into the ascending aorta which will dilate the aortic wall and generate a pulse wave. This velocity of this wave is related to the status of the blood vessels, most importantly constitutes an index of arterial elasticity or stiffness: the higher the velocity, the higher the rigidity of the vascular wall and the lower the ability to expand or bend.[8]

The pressure pulse wave generated by this action is determined by the elastic and geometric properties of the arterial wall and the characteristics (density) of the contained fluid (blood which happens to be incompressible and therefore not a factor). Thus, the properties of the arterial wall, its thickness, and the arterial lumen diameter are the major factors influencing PWV. These relationships between PWV, the pressure, wall tension and distensibility have been used to create an ‘internal age’ parameter. PWV is usually expressed per unit length and then evaluated in terms of changes in diameter or radius.

The IHeart unit is so easy to use:

  • Allow your body to relax for one or two minutes before an  IHeart recording.
  • Sit still, comfortable, and relaxed for entire 30-second recording.
  • Do not talk or move during the recording.
  • Slip your first or middle finger fully into the IHeart oximeter.
  • Ensure the finger used is warm and dry.
  • Place the hand used in the recording flat on level surface, like a table top or your leg.
  • The IHeart oximeter will reveal your Internal Age
  • Nutritional protocols are available to improve your score.

 

[1]Anand P, Kunnumakara A B, Sundaram C, Harikumar K B, Tharakan S T, Lai O S, Sung B, Aggarwal B B. Cancer is a Preventable Disease that Requires Major Lifestyle Changes. Pharm Res. 2008 September; 25(9): p.2097–2116. 

[2] Blacher J, Asmar R, Djane S, London GM, Safar ME.. Aortic pulse wave velocity as a marker of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 1999;33:1111-1117.

[3] Safar ME, London GM. The arterial system in human hypertension. In: Swales JD, ed. Textbook of Hypertension. London, UK: Blackwell Scientific. 1994:85-102.

[4] Asmar RG, Benetos A, Topuchian J, et al. Assessment of arterial compliance by automatic pulse wave velocity measurements. Validation and clinical application studies. Hypertension. 1995;26:485-490.

[5] Blacher J, Asmar R, Djane S, London GM, Safar ME.. Aortic pulse wave velocity as a marker of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 1999;33:1111-1117

[6]Avolio AP. Pulse wave velocity and hypertension. In: Safar M, ed. Arterial and Venous Systems in Essential Hypertension. Boston, Mass: Martinus-Nijhoff; 1991:133-152.

[7]Avolio AP, Deng FQ, Li DQ, Luo YF, Huang ZD, Xing LF, O’Rourke M. Effects of aging on arterial distensibility in populations with high and low prevalence of hypertension: comparison between urban and rural communities in China.Circulation. 1985;71:202-210. 

 

[8] Nichols WW, O'Rourke M. McDonald's Blood Flow in the Arteries. Theoretical, Experimental and Clinical Principles. 4th ed. London, UK: Arnold Publishers; 1998:54-113; 201-222;284-292;347-401.

 

your abdomen and back again. The stiffer the aorta, the faster the wave. Your calculated AoPWV is then compared to known values of different ages and populations to determine your Internal Age. This technology used by IHeart system is the new gold standard for determining pulse wave velocity and has created the opportunity for everyone to be aware of their CV status.. Quantitative information on the large arteries may be easily obtained by determination of PWV. This method enables one to evaluate indirectly arterial distensibility and stiffness.[1][2]

 

As the heart pumps blood into the arteries (aorta), the contraction of left ventricle ejects blood into the ascending aorta which will dilate the aortic wall and generate a pulse wave. This velocity of this wave is related to the status of the blood vessels, most importantly constitutes an index of arterial elasticity or stiffness: the higher the velocity, the higher the rigidity of the vascular wall and the lower the ability to expand or bend.[3]

 

The pressure pulse wave generated by this action is determined by the elastic and geometric properties of the arterial wall and the characteristics (density) of the contained fluid (blood which happens to be incompressible and therefore not a factor). Thus, the properties of the arterial wall, its thickness, and the arterial lumen diameter are the major factors influencing PWV. These relationships between PWV, the pressure, wall tension and distensibility have been used to create an ‘internal age’ parameter. PWV is usually expressed per unit length and then evaluated in terms of changes in diameter or radius.

 

The IHeart unit is so easy to use:

 

  • Allow your body to relax for one or two minutes before an IHeart recording.
  • Sit still, comfortable, and relaxed for entire 30-second recording.
  • Do not talk or move during the recording.
  • Slip your first or middle finger fully into the IHeart oximeter.
  • Ensure the finger used is warm and dry.
  • Place the hand used in the recording flat on level surface, like a table top or your leg.
  • The IHeart oximeter will reveal your Internal Age
  • Nutritional protocols are available to improve your score.

 

 

 

[1]Avolio AP. Pulse wave velocity and hypertension. In: Safar M, ed. Arterial and Venous Systems in Essential Hypertension. Boston, Mass: Martinus-Nijhoff; 1991:133-152.

 

[2]Avolio AP, Deng FQ, Li DQ, Luo YF, Huang ZD, Xing LF, O’Rourke M. Effects of aging on arterial distensibility in populations with high and low prevalence of hypertension: comparison between urban and rural communities in China.Circulation. 1985;71:202-210. 

 

 

 

[3] Nichols WW, O'Rourke M. McDonald's Blood Flow in the Arteries. Theoretical, Experimental and Clinical Principles. 4th ed. London, UK: Arnold Publishers; 1998:54-113; 201-222;284-292;347-401.

 

 

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